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Ghana ends 2nd oral arguments – Calls on ITLOS to reject Cote d’Ivoire’s claims

February 17, 2017 by oilgas in News in Brief with 0 Comments


Ghana has ended its second and final round of arguments at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) in Hamburg, Germany, accusing its neighbour Cote d’Ivoire for intentionally turning a blind eye to Ghana’s legal arguments.

According to the legal team from Ghana led by the Ms Gloria Akuffo – Attorney-General and Minister of Justice, Cote d’Ivoire’s arguments lacked merit as they have no evidence to back its claims that Ghana had moved into Cote d’Ivoire’s maritime space.

Ms Gloria Afua Akuffo closing arguments

The Attorney-General and Minister of Justice, Ms Gloria Afua Akuffo, has officially ended Ghana’s oral arguments at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) with a call on the ITLOS to reject Cote d’Ivoire’s claims that Ghana has moved into its maritime boundary.

“And finally, we ask you to reject Cote d’Ivoire’s attempts to argue that an oil field built up and developed over decades should have been abandoned overnight in 2009 when Cote d’Ivoire decided that a different boundary would suit it better.

“The cynicism here is all that of Cote d’Ivoire, I am afraid to say, not of Ghana,” the Attorney-General noted.

She prayed the Special Chamber to apply well-established legal principles to a clear and consistent body of evidence.

“We submit that the law and the evidence point inexorably to the maritime boundary observed by both parties for half a century – the line, which we have termed the customary equidistance boundary. We say: You must uphold that line either as a result of the parties’ tacit agreement or by way of an adjustment to the provisional equidistance line to achieve an equitable solution,” Ms Akuffo prayed.

She said the duty of the Special Chamber was to bring finality to the dispute with what she termed as a “most valued neighbour and establish certainty of legal rights and entitlements of the parties’ fortune in the conduct of their affairs in the future.”

According to her, it would “be most unfortunate, should a contrary outcome, characterised by renewed and disruptive disputation between our two states and extending to third parties, be triggered by the decision of this Special Chamber.”

Ghana’s requests

The Attorney-General and Minister of Justice is praying the Special Chamber to declare that Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire mutually recognised, agreed and applied an equidistance-based maritime boundary in the territorial sea, Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and continental shelf within 200 Miles.

She is also praying the chamber to hold that the maritime boundary in the continental shelf beyond 200 Miles follows an extended equidistance boundary along the same azimuth (azimuth is a horizontal angle measured clockwise from any fixed reference plane or easily established base direction) as the boundary within 200 Miles to be the limit of the national jurisdiction.

Further to that, Ms Akuffo wants the Special Chamber to hold that Cote d’Ivoire was in accordance with international law, estopped from objecting to the agreed maritime boundary.

Another order being sought by Ghana is a declaration that, “The land boundary terminus and starting point for the agreed maritime boundary is at Boundary Pillar 55 (BP 55).”

She said the chamber should also hold that, “The customary boundary between Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire in the Atlantic Ocean starts at BP 55, connects to the customary equidistance boundary mutually agreed by the parties at the outer limit of the territorial sea, and then follows the agreed boundary to a distance of 200 M. Beyond 200 M, the boundary continues along the same azimuth to the limit of national jurisdiction.”

Ghana is also asking the Special Chamber to reject Cote d’Ivoire’s claim that Ghana violated the Special Chamber’s April 25, 2015 order, as well as claims that Ghana violated Article 83 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and Cote d’Ivoire’s rights.

Ghana’s lead international lawyer, Professor Philippe Sands

Also addressing the Special Chamber hearing the dispute concerning the delimitation of the maritime boundary between Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana’s lead international lawyer, Professor Philippe Sands, according to the Mabel Aku Baneseh of the graphic, said: “Our friends offer you a cloud of smoke and a few lines: bisecting lines, regional problems, unequal access to resources and so on.

“We have noticed — as have you, certainly — the many points on which they have remained, for the most part, silent,” he said, stressing that “in particular they have found nothing to tell you about Côte d’Ivoire’s respect for a customary border along an equidistance line, from its accession to independence until 2009”.

Professor Sands noted that his colleagues on the other side made copious arguments “without bothering to pay attention to the replies made by Ghana at the beginning of last week to the Ivorian rejoinder”.

He said Cote d’Ivoire’s prayer to the Special Chamber hearing the dispute to adopt its bisector line argument had no basis in the present case and particularly when it had not been able to undo Ghana’s bountiful evidence before the Special Chamber.

Cote d’Ivoire’s basin

Turning to the picture of the basin provided by Cote d’Ivoire in 2005 and titled: “Deepwater Opportunities in Côte d’Ivoire”, Prof. Sands argued that “they have most of the hydrocarbons, but that is not enough, and now they want more”.

He further accused Cote d’Ivoire of being selective in the matter of geology and denied claims by that country that there would be total deprivation of its natural resources should the Special Chamber give effect to the existing boundary or an unadjusted other equidistance line.

Highlighting Côte d’Ivoire’s oil activity since 2005, he said: “…more than 178 wells, for exploration and development, have been drilled in Côte d’Ivoire’s sedimentary basin, leading to a cumulative production of 90 million barrels of oil and 400 billion cubic feet of gas. Ninety million barrels is a lot more than Ghana had at that time.”

Production in Cote d’Ivoire

Touching on the scale of oil production in Côte d’Ivoire over the years before the dispute arose, Prof. Sands said: “Oil production in Côte d’Ivoire was around 20,000 barrels a day in 1996, rising to about 60,000 barrels a day in 2006 and reaching a peak of 70,000 barrels a day in 2009. To reach that level of production, Côte d’Ivoire brought in foreign investors, and they came, among other reasons, because Côte d’Ivoire was able to offer and rely on a stable, agreed boundary, one it knew to be fully respected by Ghana.”

Responding to the assertions by Mr Adama Kamara, one of Cote d’Ivoire’s lawyers, that Cote d’Ivoire could not address issues of maritime delimitation, as well as be able to protest the activities of Ghana in granting concessions, authorising exploration and drilling; Prof. Sands said “the claim is not credible, and it is unsupported by the evidence of intense petroleum-related activity in that very period”.

He then took the Special Chamber through what he termed “impressive activity” in the same period during which Mr Kamara told the chamber that Côte d’Ivoire was in such a deep crisis.

“As you can see, from 1995 until the period when the dispute began in early 2009, Ghanaian production was minimal, less than 10,000 barrels a day. In the decade before 2009, with the benefit of an agreed boundary, Côte d’Ivoire was producing roughly between two and six times as much oil as Ghana: every day, 365 days a year, for more than ten years,” he noted.

Prof. Sands said Ghana did not make a fuss about the agreed boundary, adding that Ghana “respected the geography, the geology and the boundary. Yet now Côte d’Ivoire seeks to present itself to this Special Chamber as, somehow, a poor relation of Ghana, a resource-deprived country for which equity requires that it should have access to petroleum resources located on Ghana’s side of the existing boundary”.

Legal begging bowl

He noted that despite Cote d’Ivoire’s vast oil reserves, its lawyers had come before the Special Chamber with a “legal begging bowl”, pleading with the Special Chamber to make what he termed “a massive change to the existing boundary, so that it can add to what it already has in the Tano-Ivorian basin”.

Ghana’s lawyer noted that the principles identified by the Barbados-Trinidad and Tobago Tribunal were applicable to this case, which operated entirely in favour of maintaining the status quo in support of the existing boundary.

He noted that the consequences would be very significant and dire if the Special Chamber departed from the existing maritime boundary.

“The concessions that have been granted by Ghana will be undermined, and issues may arise under the contracts that underpin them and which have been entered into in consequence of them. How would that add to certainty and stability?

“How could it be an equitable solution for Côte d’Ivoire, having known about, accepted and never protested Ghanaian concessions and related activity based on an agreed maritime boundary to now turn around and say that it no longer recognises the boundary it had previously and long accepted as existing? How could it be equitable when Côte d’Ivoire has relied on the same boundary to develop its own oil industry? We submit that the question answers itself,” Prof. Sands pointed out.

He denied Cote d’Ivoire’s claim of Ghana violating its sovereign rights, adding: “Côte d’Ivoire has failed to point to any conduct by Ghana which could conceivably jeopardise or hamper the determination of the boundary.”

Mr Fui Tsikata

Addressing the tribunal on whether or not there had been a tacitly agreed maritime boundary between Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire in the past five decades and more, Mr Fui Tsikata, one of Ghana’s lawyers, said Cote d’Ivoire deliberately ignored or misrepresented facts before the tribunal.

He said they rather resorted to “alternative facts” and noted that out of the 15 maps that were shown last week, seven were produced by five ministries in Cote d’Ivoire, ministries which, to counsel, had not been privatised.

Mr Tsikata’s response to the issue of the maps coming from Ivorian government agencies that had not been privatised was in answer to claims by Cote d’Ivoire that Ghana had tendered in evidence maps produced by oil companies.

He said Ghana had provided many maps, which explicitly show that the Ivorian authorities had acknowledged the existence of a maritime boundary between the two countries for more than five decades.

He said Cote d’Ivoire failed to produce evidence that it first put up protest in 1988 and later in 1992.

“Nothing in the material before you support the contention of Cote d’Ivoire that it protested to Ghana on even a single occasion against the use of the customary equidistance boundary on even a single occasion between 1956 and 2009,” he said, adding: “Last week Monday, Prof. Sands posed the question: Where is the evidence of the constant opposition alleged by Cote d’Ivoire?”

Counsel noted that Ghana was still waiting for that answer from Cote d’Ivoire, adding that Cote d’Ivoire appeared to have a problem with the word “customary”.

He stressed that the word “captures the idea of an accepted practice, evolved over time and with normative implications.”

Cote d’Ivoire

Cote d’Ivoire will advance its final oral argument tomorrow, Thursday, February 16, 2017.

The President of the Special Chamber constituted to deal with the dispute, Judge Boualem Bouguetaia, is presiding over the hearing.


After 10 failed negotiation attempts, Ghana, in September 2014, announced that it had instituted arbitration proceedings at the ITLOS to ensure a resolution of its maritime boundary dispute with Cote d’Ivoire.

In accordance with Article 3(a) of Annex VII, Ghana appointed Judge Thomas Mensah, a former President of the ITLOS, as a member of the tribunal.

“Despite several years of good faith negotiations, including at least 10 rounds of bilateral meetings, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire have been unable to agree upon the location of their maritime boundary,” then Attorney-General and Minister of Justice, Mrs Marietta Brew Appiah-Opong, announced at a press conference in Accra on September 23, 2014.


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Revenue mobilization from the oil sector for Agricultural production in Ghana, a myth or reality?

We are back with Penplusbytes Online Discussion on Oil and Gas. This latest episode, starting from today Monday 6th June,…

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    • Comment by Godwill Arthur-Mensah,my take on the mobilization of oil revenues

    I strongly believe that the petroleum revenues had not been strategically invested in the agricultural sector and I agree with Dr. Ishmael Ackah, the Head of Research, Monitoring and Evaluation at the Africa Centre for Energy Policy (ACEP), who stated in a forum in Takradi last year that Government have not made strategic investment in agriculture because in 2014 budget, 70 percent of the agriculture budget went into the construction of  four sea defence walls projects, instead of food crop production or aquaculture.

    Currently, the cost of cassava is very high in the Western Region and in other parts of the country because the demand had outstripped supply due to decline in production.

    Over the years, growth in the agricultural sector had declined, recording growth of 7.4 per cent in 2008 followed with 7.2 per cent, 5.3 per cent and 0.8 per cent in 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively, according to statistics available to the Ministry of Food and Agriculture.

    It is unfortunate that Government had been replacing its normal allocation to the agricultural sector with petroleum revenues allocation as determined by the Annual Budget Funding Amount (ABFA), instead of the Petroleum revenues complementing the usual allocations.

    Moreover, some peasant farmers in the Western Region had complained bitterly that oil and gas companies had bought arable land meant for agricultural purposes for the construction of their warehouses and thus, deprived them of their livelihoods.

    Godwill Arthur Mensah

    GNA, Regional correspondent(Western Region)

    Comments by Justice Adoboe

    Ghana must avoid making the oil and gas sector another enclave economy.

    Ghana must avoid making the oil and gas sector another enclave economy as the mining sector has been over the years. The fact that our oil sector is a very small one whose direct  impact on the economy in general is quite negligible so far is the same reason part of the revenue accruing from the sector should be re-invested in agricultural development.

    Petroleum can cease to flow tomorrow, but our arable lands which are crying for cultivation will still be  there, investing and the decisions and efforts we make today at investing in the agric sector modernization is what will determine our food security tomorrow.

    As Climate Change is becoming a reality in our case with prolonged drought, short periods of rain but causing severe flooding, especially affecting the northern sector which is Ghana’s granary and the source of legumes and many root crops, the need  of investing in  irrigation across the length and breadth of the country is no more a in doubt but an issue demanding immediate action.

    If we can invest in a quarter of the 1.9 million hectares of irrigable land the country has, we can be assured of an all-year round production of certain key food crops that we spend scarce foreign exchange importing today

    so far only 28,000 hectares of irrigable lands have been irrigated across the country, so you see why we keep importing tomatoes from Burkina Faso.

    Beyond investment in crop cultivation, we also need investment in the other portions of agriculture value chain, talking about input production, storage and timely  supply, modern harvesting, drying and storage methods and facilities.

    As we see investments coming into cocoa processing so also must we invest into food processing and marketing in order to prolong the availability of our key staples.

    If we put these things into practice, the need for GMOs for higher production won’t arise.

    Meanwhile, as we do these investments, the number of those going to be in direct cultivation would reduce, but the other portions along the value chain that would be developed, input production, storage and distribution; drying, processing; storage as well as marketing have the potential to yield more jobs that are higher paying than the sector does now.

    Taking the first step of putting money into the real needs of the agriculture sector is key. As for the reason it was the agric sector investment that had its budget slashed last year as a result of the oil price drops I think was a decision not well thought-out.

    Justice Lee Adoboe

    Senior Correspondent Accra Bureau of the Xinhua News Agency





    MESSAGE FROM DR ISHMAEL ACKAH:  Revenue mobilization from the oil sector for Agricultural production in Ghana, a myth or reality?(DISCUSSION)

    1. Is there a relationship between the fortune of the agriculture sector and a rise of the oil and gas sector?
    Answer: Yes. The oil sector affects agriculture in two main ways. First is the labour  mobility effect. The oil sector draws on the agriculture and other sectors for labour. There are instances where the youth especially leave their farms to go and look for non-existing jobs in the oil sector,. Second, increased foreign exchange into the economy can lead to the appreciation of the cedi and make agriculture inputs expensive, which will in turn make agriculture exports expensive and non-competitive. Both channels can lead to reduction in agriculture output.
    1. What are the drivers or rationale to move resources from oil and gas to agriculture sector?
    Oil resources have two main limitations. First, since oil prices are volatile, revenues are volatile too. Second, oil resources are exhaustible. Due to these reasons, countries that have been successful in managing their oil resources well diversify. Since agriculture provides a competitive advantage to Ghana in terms of fertile land, cheap labour and productive, it is important to build the agriculture sector with oil revenues to serve as a buffer during oil price shocks.
    1. Which countries are suffering a decline in agriculture due to the discovery of oil and gas?
    Nigeria was once the number 1 palm oil producer in the world before oil production started around 1958.
    1. Does Ghana have an inter-sectorial link between the Petroleum and Agriculture ministry?
    No.However, the Finance Ministry usually unofficially serve as the link between different Ministries
    1. Is it a reality that revenues from the oil sector has been mobilized for Agricultural development or not?  If it is what are the things to show?  How many people have benefited from the Oil revenue in the agriculture sector?
    Agriculture is one of the four priority areas that have received oil revenues over the past 5 and half years. Agriculture received about 9.2% of the total oil revenues in the first 5 years. This is relatively low compared to GNPC’s 39%. There is little to be shown for this investment since the sector faces challenges such as oil revenues substituting instead of  complementing traditional sources of funding such as IGF, GOG and development partners. In addition, there are issues of misapplication. For instance, in  2014, 170,62 million Ghana cedis or 43.91 million U.S. dollars was allocated to the agriculture sector from oil revenues.Out of this amount 69 percent went into sea defence projects. Finally, allocation from oil revenues to agriculture has seen a ”see-saw” trend. For example, in 2013, 2.5% of ABFA wa allocated to agriculture. This increased to 31% in 2014 and reduced to 3.5% in 2015. In 2016, it is projected to be 28%. This affects proper planning and productivity. The sector needs an investment plan, guided by effective monitoring and evalutaion and measurable indicators
    6. Oil Revenues as Substitutes instead of complement to the Agric. sector
    Yes. Oil revenues now constitute more than 90% of the capital and goods and service budget of agriculture. This means agriculture will be affected most when there is low oil prices.
    7. Low level  of oil revenues investment in agriculture
    Yes. agriculture has received only 9.2% of oil revenues over the past 5 years.
    8. Have the oil producing districts shown decline in the Agriculture production?
    The oil is produced offshore and the fishermen have been complaining about low catch since the oil production. Alternative livelihood systems have been developed by oil companies.However, it should be institutionalized and properly targeted.
     Inline image
    Ishmael Ackah, Ph.D
    Head of Policy Unit 
    Africa Centre for Energy Policy (ACEP)


    My take on this issue is that the development of Agriculture in Ghana as a result of oil is purely a myth with very little result to show for.

    A 2014 Annual Report of the International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) suggests that West and Central Africa received in excess of US$157.8 Million representing about 22.1% of the total share of  US$713.4 Million funds for financing programmes and projects approved in 2014 alone.

    Although IFADs core mandate is to finance the growth of Agriculture and its value chain to ensure food security in countries, it has interestingly started funding natural resource management especially in cities where these God-given resources are found.

    The following is how the various sub-sectors were impacted through the distribution.

    Agriculture and natural resource management – 32%, Market and related infrastructure – 16%, Rural financial services – 13%, Others 13%,

    Policy and institutional support – 10%Community-driven and human development – 8%, Small and microenterprises – 7%

    Therefore, in 2014 Ghana received its share of the funds distributed  with a breakdown as follows;

    GHANA: Ghana Agricultural Sector Investment Programme (GASIP)

    GASIP will work to reduce poverty in rural Ghana sustainably.

    It will have three components: value chain development; rural value chain infrastructure; and knowledge management, policy support and coordination. Smallholder farmers and resource-poor rural people will be the main targets, particularly women, young people (aged 15-24 years) and young adults (aged 25-34 years). This national programme will be governed by a demand- and market-driven approach. The initial design and financing will cover the first two cycles (six years).

    Approved loan amount: SDR 23.7 million (equivalent to approximately US$36.6 million)

    Approved ASAP grant amount: SDR 6.5 million (approximately US$10.0 million)

    Total programme cost: estimated at US$113.0 million, of which national government will provide US$7.6 million, beneficiaries US$4.6 million, districts US$1.7 million and participating financial institutions US$17.5 million. IFAD is expected to seek additional financing of US$35.0 million in 2016-2018

    Approximate reach: 55,000 households .

    Although Ghana discovered oil in commercial quantities in 2010, and attained middle-income status in 2011, the overarching effect of oil revenue on Agric in this regard is yet to be felt with Agriculture contributing only some  0.04% of GDP.

    We should perhaps take note that Ghana has also been the largest recipient of IFAD‘s loans and grants in the West and Central Africa region since 1980.

    As a journalist, it beats my imagination why these resource nations find it extremely difficult to adequately fund Agriculture which employs the majority of its people. Perhaps Ghana is not alone in this struggle. Uganda, Mozambique and Tanzania can all be fingered. But this should no way be an escape for our leaders to sit up and salvage the situation.

    Finally, the recent Panama Papers which exposed two sons of prominent leaders allegedly involved in illicit financial flows and tax havens i.e Former President John Agyekum Kufour and Kojo Annan, son of former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan should not be swept under the carpet.

    Civil Society organizations like ACEP in Ghana should not be hypocritical to this and they cannot turn a blind eye on the matter. Ghanaians need to be educated on the truth on the issue and certain outcomes reached in this regard.

    Malise Otoo

    Managing Editor,
    Ghana Daily News
    No. 10A Christianborg Castle Road, Osu-Accra, Ghana
    P.O.Box DK 817, Darkuman, Accra
    Comments from Tanko Mohammed Rabiu
    As Ghana congratulates and award farmers today in Bolgatanga in the upper east region, a lot of farmers’, agriculture experts and energy experts are calling on the government to invest heavily in agriculture from the oil revenues. This according to them agriculture contributes faster to poverty reduction than does industrial investments. Agricultural spending has wider redistributive effect citing some examples; Indonesia used its oil rents to supply fertilizer to farmers and develop new crops, building the basis for the country’s green revolution. They also invested heavily in agricultural research to identify new commodities that could improve on export potential. Malaysia invested its oil revenues into forestry and palm oil, building very successful industries. Chile, used proceeds from copper to invest into new agricultural commodities, such as salmon, a product that had not been part of the country’s export products before and other countries who are also using oil revenues to improve in agriculture.
    At the height of the global financial and economic crises in 2007, Ghana discovered oil and gas in commercial quantities estimated at 1.8 billion barrels reserves. In spite of the modest production levels, oil has now become the second largest export of Ghana – US$2.7 billion in 2011 to US$3 billion in 2012; following gold and overtaking cocoa since then. Ghana is also gradually becoming a net exporter of crude oil with oil imports of US$3.3 billion in 2012 versus oil exports of US$3 billion. Over the last 4 years, Ghana earned about US$2.7 billion in revenues to the state. With new discoveries being developed, Ghana could earn more from its share of crude oil. With increasing oil revenues as a result, many are skeptical if Ghana can avoid the curse of oil and transform its oil wealth into positive development outcomes.
    In Ghana, research has shown that at the national level, agricultural public expenditures have the highest returns in terms of agricultural productivity. For one marginal cedi invested in agriculture, GH¢16.8 is returned, feeder roads – GH¢8.8, Health – GH¢1.3. In spite of the potential of this sector to contribute to the country’s development, there continue to exist a wide funding gap in public expenditure. Agricultural share of public spending is currently at 8.5%, which has been insufficient to generate the levels of growth that would reduce poverty levels significantly. This is lesser than the Maputo Declaration of a minimum spending of 10%. If Ghana is to become a full middle-income country by 2015 and see decline in poverty rates of almost 70 percent, the share of agricultural expenditure in public spending would have to almost double from the current 8.5 to 14.1 percent.
    Nevertheless, Allocation of oil revenues to agriculture was increased in the 2014 Budget from GHS20 million in 2013 to GHS136 million in 2014. Agriculture share of oil revenues were allocated to investments focused on small holder farming but farmers are asking for more improvement in the sector. In a telephone interview with the 1996 national best farmer Aloko Dongo who is still in active farming expressed his dissatisfaction on the declining state of agriculture saying farmers do not have access to credit facilities to enhance in their activities. He said many a times a lot of farmers commit suicide after failing to pay back loans taken from financial institutions and said lack of access to market, storage facilities and disease control.
    Speaking to Dr. Amin Adam, the executive director for Africa center for energy policy, ACEP, in an exclusive interview after his presentation on political economy of Ghana’s oil and gas sector/follow the money at a media training for journalist in the extractive sector, said agriculture is the easiest way to reduce poverty in Ghana looking at the scope of the agriculture industry where the sector has more working force. He said there is the need for more citizen participation in decision making process I the oil and gas sector so as to benefit the poor and the vulnerable.
    On the morning of the national farmers’ day celebration, TV3’s morning show “new day” hosted O.B Amoah, a member of the NPP, John abdulai Jinapor deputy minister of power and a member of the CPP. All the panelists reiterated the need for government to invest more of the oil revenue to agriculture and mean while John Jinapor said despite these challenges, government is investing a lot in agricultural industrialization from different funding sources examples like the fomenda sugar factory, shea butter factory at Buipe, rice mills in Tamale and Nasia.
    According to the 2015 budget, 3.95% of the total budget went to agriculture and only 1.39% was spent and in the 2106 budget it declined to 3.5% which according to agriculture expert is not encouraging and not good for a developing country like Ghana. An amount of GHC 501,501, 708.00 is allocated to the agriculture ministry representing 3.5%.
    Most of the farmers I spoke to want more share of the oil revenue to agriculture because agriculture is the most easiest way to reduce poverty and the only sector where the poor can make livelihood from without huge investments.
    The table below shows how oil revenues were allocated to agriculture from 2012 to 2013.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SECTORS                               ABFA 2012        RANK     ABFA 2013    RANK
    Office of the President
    Parliament of Ghana
    Finance and Economic Planning
    local government
    Food & Agriculture
    Lands & Natural Resources
    Trade & Industry
    Envir, Science & Technology
    Tourism and Culture
    Water Resources, Wrks & Housing
    Roads and Highways
    Employment & Social Welfare
    Youth & Sports
    MDAs Total
    Source: ACEP
    Tanko Mohammed Rabiu
    Regional Correspondent, Tamale
    TV3 News Network Limited

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